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    Software name: appdown
    Software type: Microsoft Framwork

    size: 453MB


    Software instructions

      Lastly, proportions; having estimated the cutting force required at one ton, although less than the actual strain in a machine of this kind, we proceed upon this to fix proportions, [157] beginning with the tool shank, and following back through the adjusting saddle, the cutting bar, connections, crank pins, shafts, and gear wheels to the belt. Starting again at the tool, or point of cutting, following through the supports of the rack, the jaws that clamp it, the saddle for the graduating adjustment, the connections with the main frame, and so on to the crank-shaft bearing a second time, dimensions may be fixed for each piece to withstand the strains without deflection or danger of breaking. Such proportions cannot, I am aware, be brought within the rules of ordinary practice by relying upon calculation alone to fix them, and no such course is suggested; calculation may aid, but cannot determine proportions in such cases; besides, symmetry, which cannot be altogether disregarded, modifies the form and sometimes the dimensions of various parts.These rules apply to forging, but in a different way from other processes. Unlike pattern-making or casting, the general processes in forging are uniform; and still more unlike pattern-making or casting, there is a measurable uniformity in the articles produced, at least in machine-forging, where bolts, screws, and shafts are continually duplicated.

      Milling, as explained, being a more rapid process than either planing or turning, it seems strange that so few machines of this kind are employed in engineering shops. This points to some difficulty to be contended with in milling, which is not altogether apparent, because economic reasons would long ago have led to a more extended use of milling processes, if the results were as profitable as the speed of cutting indicates. This is, however, not the case, except on certain kinds of material, and only for certain kinds of work.The dust-wall extended gradually as the distance grew covered by the Germans in their flight to their former positions. But at last we saw the first men emerge in complete disorder from that driving cloud. Some on the right, others on the left, here60 and there also small groups which courageously dragged their guns with them, as they saved themselves from that infernal downpour.

      To conclude. The reader will understand that the difficulties and diversity of practice, in any branch of engineering, create similar or equal difficulties in explaining or reasoning about the operations; and the most that can be done in the limited space allotted here to the subject of moving material, is to point out some of the principles that should govern the construction and adaptation of handling machinery, from which the reader can take up the subject upon his own account, and follow it through the various examples that may come under notice.From this it may be seen that there must occur a great loss of power in operating on large pieces, for whatever force is absorbed by inertia has no effect on the underside. By watching a smith using a hand hammer it will be seen that whenever a piece operated upon is heavier than the hammer employed, but little if any effect is produced on the anvil or bottom surface, nor is this loss of effect the only one. The expense of heating, which generally exceeds that of shaping forgings, is directly as the amount of shaping that may be done at each heat; and consequently, if the two sides of a piece, instead of one, can be equally acted upon, one-half the heating will be saved.

      It is also necessary to learn as soon as possible the technicalities pertaining to lathe work, and still more important to learn the conventional modes of performing various operations. Although lathe work includes a large range of operations which are continually varied, yet there are certain plans of performing each that has by long custom become conventional; to gain an acquaintance with these an apprentice should watch the practice of the best workmen, and follow their plans as near as he can, not risking any innovation or change until it has been very carefully considered. Any attempt to introduce new methods, modes of chucking work, setting and grinding tools, or other of the ordinary operations in turning, may not only lead to awkward mistakes, but will at once put a stop to useful information that might otherwise be gained from others. The technical terms employed in describing lathe work are soon learned, generally sooner than they are needed, and are often misapplied, which is worse than to be ignorant of them.In the case of line shafting for manufactories, if the speed varies so much from that of the first movers on machines as to require one or more intermediate or countershafts, the expense would be very great; on the contrary, if countershafts can be avoided, there is a great saving of belts, bearings, machinery, and obstruction. The practical limit of speed for line shafts is in a great measure dependent upon the nature of the bearings, a subject that will be treated of in another place.

      For quite a quarter of an hour they seemed to proceed successfully, as obviously not one shell exploded in their neighbourhood. But suddenly all along their line dark masses several yards high rose up. This was the effect of numerous exceedingly well-aimed shells on the dry, loose sand. Soon the men were surrounded by those thick clouds of dust, and only during the first few minutes I saw here and there one of those shades in human form tumble down, evidently hit by one of the projectiles. Then I saw nothing for a long while, excepting the thick wall of dust, which seemed to remain standing up, for constantly the shells threw up anew the earth that had only just fallen down.

      Boring may be divided into three operations as follows: chuck-boring on lathes; bar-boring, when a boring bar runs on points or centres, and is supported at the ends only; and bar-boring when a bar is supported in and fed through fixed bearings. The principles are different in these operations, each one being applicable to certain kinds of work. A workman who can distinguish between these plans of boring, and can always determine from the nature of a certain work which is the best to adopt, has acquired considerable knowledge of fitting operations.



      CHAPTER XIV. HYDRAULIC APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING POWER.Milling relates to metal cutting with serrated rotary cutters, and differs in many respects from either planing or turning. The movement of the cutting edges can be more rapid than with tools which act continuously, because the edges are cooled during the intervals between each cut; that is, if a milling tool has twenty teeth, any single tooth or edge acts only from a fifteenth to a twentieth part of the time; and as the cutting distance or time of cutting is rarely long enough to generate much heat, the speed of such tools may be one-half greater than for turning, drilling, or planing tools. Another distinction between milling and other tools is the perfect and rigid manner in which the cutting edges are supported; they are short and blunt, besides being usually carried on short rigid mandrils. A result of this rigid support of the tools is seen in the length of the cutting edges that can be employed, which are sometimes four inches or more in length. It is true the amount of material cut away in milling is much less than the edge movement will indicate when compared with turning or planing; yet the displacing capacity of a milling machine exceeds that of either a lathe or a planing machine. Theoretically the cutting or displacing capacity of any metal or wood cutting machine, is as the length of the edges multiplied into the speed of their cutting movement; a rule which applies very uniformly in wood cutting, and also in metal cutting within certain limits; but the strains that arise in metal cutting are so great that they may exceed all means of resisting them either in the material acted upon, or in the means of supporting tools, so that the length of cutting edges is limited. In turning chilled rolls at Pittsburg, [141] tools to six inches wide are employed, and the effect produced is as the length of the edge; but the depth of the cut is slight, and the operation is only possible because of the extreme rigidity of the pieces turned, and the tools being supported without movable joints as in common lathes.


      In sketches and drawings made for practice, such as are not intended for the shop, it is suggested that metrical scales be employed; it will not interfere with feet and inches, and will prepare the mind for the introduction of this system of lineal measurement, which may in time be adopted in England and America, as it has been in many other countries.53